On the development of “effective listening” skills
“I do not understand everything by word” – which is the most common problem that people are turning to the supervisor, who already has a learning experience of a foreign language and are willing to explore their difficulties.
Apparently, the difficulty to understand the external ear speaks almost a bit according to the “limitation” to learn the language, grammar, rich vocabulary that often develops a strong belief in the “inability” to foreign language students. What is the “root” of the problem and what are the means to solve them?
From literature to psychology know that listening to language learning, verbal and logical thinking with storage, and is a main component of the pay structure of the language capacity to be taken into account. The factors that determine each type of activity were in the depths of our psyche and the properties of the nervous system. Especially psychology of language learning are not students of typological classification limited their belonging to calls (“linguistic” or) cognitive, communicative type and mixed intermediate – preferred language learning strategies, which is defined as a property of the nervous system the personality and characteristics of the student (and some of the most obvious behavioral characteristics, not to escape the attention of an experienced teacher).
So we know that the understanding of the external ear speech is an undeniable advantage of “communicative” nature representatives and causes the greatest difficulty for cognitive “point students that the difference between these two types of action clearly. It is also known that such an arrangement is made with great difficulty in forming existing procedures. As a result, these students must “end” by itself unable to complete the communication to master a foreign language and the ability of the teacher to help them in this process.
Each student was responsible has its own characteristics, the “weak” parts, named for its ability to “strong” or speak a foreign language. These aspects must be taken into account in the development of each teacher working with pupils with specific policies – such as using the page to maximize ‘strong’ to make ‘weak’. We are now interested in the “problem” of “cognitive”, among others, described in the literature, such strong qualities as:
- Analyze strong inclination, conscious assimilation of linguistic material;
- High capacity mediated relatively arbitrary memorization;
- Increased attention, punctuality, self-control;
- High efficiency.
This “strong”, “cognitive” hand can leave teacher-type training to improve the quality of listening. Build a good knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, skill, good basic logic connections in a student attempt “cognitive” is the ability to recognize the weakness of nature, to make foreign languages to the audience.
I try to develop students’ cognitive skills in my work called “active listening.” The term is borrowed from defectology, which is used to reflect the active use of all available incentives to compensate for the lack of hearing auditory perception.
The basic principle – like the development of semantic speculation in reading – use logical reasoning to fill the “gaps” lack of understanding by listening to fragments statements. This principle is based on the known properties of the psyche – an integrated vision. Exercises are to stop listening position breaks semantic logic to allow students to “invent” something that cannot understand the ear. In this case, students are encouraged to actively use and apply grammatical context knowledge to correct odds.
The importance of these exercises – to allow students to ensure this statement, without distinction of all the words that inspire confidence in him to understand. In addition, when students’ communication is the quality that this need to work specifically with beginning with “cognitive” students, sometimes to overcome strong resistance domestic suspicion and associated with an increased need for conscious control. The speed and complexity of the text to the audience, the number of times defined listening to students of teaching. The emphasis is on intonation students to talk about emphases and semantic breaks. When used for video recording is an additional incentive, easier understanding gestures and facial expressions speaking a visual context is active attention sent to students to work with. Work in this direction, students get into the habit of not listening to a word, and trying to understand the meaning of the utterance as a whole, using additional non-verbal stimuli.
A good exercise is to listen to several fragments known content of students’ speech, speaking different speech sounds, properties, etc. Students of pronunciation in auditory general memory images of words and phrases to create and maintain.
When communicating with students in a foreign language that the focus should be on common semantic understanding of statements using a components paraphrase and nonverbal communication.
By developing an understanding of hearing, like any other skill, it is important that the absence of a mediator in the form of a translation in their mother tongue – factors discussed by several authors. Means, the answer must statements and actions of students looked at what we always strive students to develop this skill.
In this approach, all students listen to persistent difficulties arise, you can improve performance in the workplace significantly.